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Celebrating 50 years, the Journal of Advertising Research 50th Anniversary Special Edition is packed with analysis and insights from over 40 internationally renowned academics and industry leaders.

Journal of Advertising Research - September 2010

Journal of Advertising Research    Journal of Advertising Research

The Multi-Cultural Mandate

Geoffrey Precourt, Vol. 50, No. 3, 2010, pp.227-228

In his editorial for volume 50, issue 3 of the Journal of Advertising Research, Geoffrey Precourt opens the discussion on the "Multi-Cultural Mandate".

Marketing in a Hyper-Social World: The Tribalization of Business Study and Characteristics of Successful Online Communities

Edward Moran and Francois Gossieaux, Vol. 50, No. 3, 2010, pp.232-239

Organizations are increasingly using online communities to interact with customers, but marketers identify a number of key obstacles standing in the way of community effectiveness. The authors analyze the results of the Tribalization of Business Study, a survey of more than 500 companies that are using online communities and other research to identify characteristics of successful communities. The authors suggest that marketers should understand key human characteristics as thoroughly as the Web 2.0 and social media tools they employ when interacting with customers through online communities and that by keeping these human attributes in mind, marketers may foster more successful community deployments.

Digital Anthropology: How Ethnography Can Improve Online Research

Ray Pettit, Vol. 50, No. 3, 2010, pp.240-242

As the concept of "listening to" and "understanding" people in their "natural" environment occupies a larger portion of marketing and advertising research thinking, it seems appropriate that techniques and methods from anthropology would blossom. Robert V. Kozinets captures a powerful facet of this in "Netnography: Doing Ethnographic Research Online". In this article, the Journal of Advertising Research talks with Professor Kozinets about the development of Netnography theory and its practice in digital marketing.

Multi-Platform Messaging: The Medium Matters

Theresa Treutler, Brian Levine and Carl D. Marci, Vol. 50, No. 3, 2010, pp.243-249

Advances in technology and a growing number of media platforms enable people to vary their media consumption experience more than ever before. Each new platform also offers marketers more messaging outlets and new gateways to the eyes, ears, and emotions of their target consumer. The Television Bureau of Canada (TVB) partnered with Innerscope Research, Inc. to use biometric research techniques combined with eye-tracking data to compare the unconscious emotional responses prompted by ads placed in the television environment with ads from the same brands placed in newspaper, radio, and online platforms. The goal of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of how different media effectively communicate advertising messaging with the goal of understanding such questions as, how can marketers identify which platform provides advertising messages with the most impact on the target consumer? The study results detail the strengths of each platform to help enable marketers to create more strategic campaigns across the media mix. To ensure the validity of the results, this multi-platform study was further audited by the Canadian Advertising Research Foundation to ensure the integrity of the methodologies used and the neutrality of the study design, execution, and interpretation of the results.

A Tale of Two Social Contexts: Race-Specific Testimonials on Commercial Web Sites

Troy Elias and Osei Appiah, Vol. 50, No. 3, 2010, pp.250-264

This two-part study examines the effects of race-specific testimonials on both Black and White consumers and on Black majority and Black minority consumers. Study I demonstrates that Black Internet surfers respond more favorably to testimonial ads that utilize Black character testimonials than they do to testimonials that use White characters. White Internet surfers responded no differently to testimonials based on the race of the product presenter. Study I also indicates that Black and White Web surfers seem to have a slight preference for moderately vivid testimonials versus highly vivid testimonials. Study II indicates that Blacks who represented a numeric minority in their immediate social environment showed more favorability toward ads that use Black characters than Blacks who resided in a social environment wherein they comprised a numeric majority.

The Power of Theme and Language in Multi-Cultural Communities: Which Tobacco Prevention Messages Are Most Persuasive to Mexican-American Youth?

Kathleen Kelly, Maria Leonora G. Comello, Linda R. Stanley and Gabriel R. Gonzalez, Vol. 50, No. 3, 2010, pp.265-278

This article reports on an experiment conducted that tested anti-tobacco advertising strategies aimed at a bicultural Mexican-American youth audience. The direct effects of three advertising themes (negative health consequences, social norms against smoking, and tobacco industry manipulation) and three language executions (English, Spanish, and “Spanglish”) on adolescent Hispanics’ evaluations of the advertisements were examined using a multilevel modeling approach. Additionally, participant-level measures for acculturation and tobacco-related attitudes and behaviors as potential moderators were included. Although all the tested advertisements were viewed favorably, results suggest that a negative health theme may be most effective in a community-wide campaign because it evokes the least amount of counter-arguing among smokers while, at the same time, eliciting positive evaluations from nonsmokers. Results also support the use of either Spanglish or English in the design of anti-tobacco advertising aimed at Mexican-American youths. The study contributes to practical knowledge by examining these factors in stimuli with a high level of ecological validity.

The Influence of Ethnic Identification in Digital Advertising: How Hispanic Americans' Response to Pop-Up, E-Mail, and Banner Advertising Affects Online Purchase Intentions

Enrique P. Becerra and Pradeep K. Korgaonkar, Vol. 50, No. 3, 2010, pp.279-291

Hispanic Americans' purchasing power and Internet usage are on the rise, but published research on the influence of Web advertising on their purchase intentions online is still scarce. This study explores Hispanic-American attitudes toward banner, e-mail, pop-up advertising, and purchase intentions and accounts for ethnic identification (i.e., strength of association to the Hispanic culture) and selected demographics. The results vary among the three types of online advertising and indicate that attitudes toward online advertising and purchase intentions online are significantly related to ethnic identification… but not in the expected direction. The major findings and their implications are discussed.

The Interactive Authority of Brand Web Sites: A New Tool Provides New Insights

Hilde Voorveld, Peter Neijens and Edith Smit, Vol. 50, No. 3, 2010, pp.292-304

This study aims to develop a new coding instrument to examine the interactivity of the Web sites of brands. A new instrument contains 47 interactive functions and is directly linked to theory on interactivity. To test the applicability of the instrument, the study investigates the interactivity of 66 American and 66 Dutch Web sites by means of a content analysis. Results show that the instrument can be used in different contexts. In addition, the content analysis discloses interesting differences between American and Dutch Web sites and between Web sites of different types of products. Practitioners can use the instrument to assess the interactivity of their own Web sites.

Cutting Edges: Listening-Led Marketing Science, Media Strategies, and Organizations

Stephen D. Rappaport, Vol. 50, No. 3, 2010, pp.305-315

This article is excerpted from The Listening Playbook, by Stephen D. Rappaport (The Advertising Research Foundation, 2010), which is concerned with listening to conversations as part of brand strategy.

Colors, Brands, and Trademarks: The Marketing (and Legal) Problem of Establishing Distinctiveness

Janet Hoek and Philip Gendall, Vol. 50, No. 3, 2010, pp.316-322

The successful registration of a color as a trademark requires the courts to assess whether the color has developed secondary meaning with respect to a specific brand. Survey evidence often is used to support distinctiveness claims but frequently carries little weight because of criticisms of the methodology used. Cadbury’s application to register the color purple in New Zealand, for instance, provided a context for comparing three methods of establishing brand/color distinctiveness: a traditional approach and two novel approaches involving a color wheel and choice modeling. All three methods revealed strong associations between Cadbury and purple, but the new methods tested are potentially more robust and less susceptible to challenge in the courts.

Why Modeling Averages Is Not Good Enough: A Critique of the Law of Double Jeopardy

Martin Bongers and Jan Hofmeyr, Vol. 50, No. 3, 2010, pp.323-333

For more than 40 years, Andrew Ehrenberg and others have demonstrated the value of the Dirichlet and related distributions as a method for modeling typical brand performance measures (BPMs) in markets. This work has led to trenchant critiques of many attitudinal measures related to branding—specifically, brand strength, differentiation, and persuasion. Using panel data, we show that though the Dirichlet leads to accurate BPMs for fixed time-slices, its assumptions about individual behavior are wrong. We therefore challenge the way the law-of-double-jeopardy theorists use patterns identified by the Dirichlet to generalize about brand performance, the psychology of consumer preference, and the role of advertising. Far from being problematic, attitudinal measures may be the only path to the successful understanding of the effects of marketing initiatives.

The ARF 360 Model: Update to a Human-Centric Approach

Jenni Romaniuk and Craig Gugel, Vol. 50, No. 3, 2010, pp.334-343

Given the radically expanded universe of media options available to consumers today, the ARF 360 Media and Marketing Council undertook a reevaluation of the role that exposure to communication channels play in moving consumers along the path to purchase.  This article provides an update of that journey and suggests a likely destination better suited to the needs of the twenty-first century. We welcome feedback on the developing model to ensure it has utility for all sectors of the industry. To comment on the article or to find out more about the 360 Media and Marketing Council Model Committee, please contact
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