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Celebrating 50 years, the Journal of Advertising Research 50th Anniversary Special Edition is packed with analysis and insights from over 40 internationally renowned academics and industry leaders.

Journal of Advertising Research - September 2009

Editorial – The Innovation Issue

Geoffrey Precourt, Vol. 49, No. 3, September 2009, pp.253-255

Geoffrey Precourt introduces the lead theme and papers of JAR 49, 3: innovation.

Management Slant

Provides a bullet-point summary of key learnings and conclusions from the main articles in JAR issue 49,3.

Viewpoint - The Opportunity for Marketing “Simplification”

Joel Rubinson, Vol. 49, No. 3, September 2009, pp.260-262

Joel Rubinson, chief research officer of the Advertising Research Foundation (ARF), uses behavioral economics to demonstrate how recent history has refocused marketing, in some cases, in the wrong direction. He specifically focuses on two recent books: "Predictably Irrational — Hidden Forces That Shape Our Decisions" by Dan Ariely (Harper, 2009) and "How We Decide" by Jonah Lehrer (Houghton Mifflin Co., 2009).

Viewpoint: Now Or Never - An Urgent Call to Action for Consensus on New Media Metrics

Alan Wurtzel , Volume 49, No. 3, September 2009, pp.263-265

Alan Wurtzel, president/research and media development at NBC Universal, offers his opinion on the challenge of marketing to innovate its measurement approaches and metrics in face of rapid change in media, technology and consumer behavior.

A Classic Formula: End-to-End Insight with Added Productivity

Clodagh Forde, Stan Sthanunathan, Dave Patten, and Geoff Wicken , Volume 49, No. 3, September 2009, pp.266-270

In an era of belt tightening, retrenching, and doing more with less, The Coca-Cola Company introduced an innovative way to maximize insights and minimize costs. The successful formula was SPAN or Segmentation of People, Attitudes, and Needs. SPAN links proprietary consumer research with syndicated lifestyle and media research on a global scale and provides enhanced and integrated insights. The benefits of SPAN seen by The Coca-Cola Company are better portfolio planning and targeting, better connections and media planning, and more effective and efficient media investment.

This Event is Me! How Consumer Event Self-Congruity Leverages Sponsorship

Angeline G Close, Anjala S Krishen, and Michael S Latour , Volume 49, No. 3, September 2009, pp.271-284

Based on a real-world field study of 21 sponsored promotional events (more specifically, sponsored fashion shows) (n = 535), we provide a self-congruity theory-based model explaining the role of mall shoppers’ self-congruity on the effectiveness of experiential mall promotions. We find that self-congruity with the event is a key influencer of promotion effectiveness. Specifically, we show that (1) more expertise with the sponsor affects self-congruity with the sponsor; (2) in turn, self-congruity with the promotional event enhances persuasiveness of the event; and (3) this event persuasion enhances the consumer’s likelihood to shop at the sponsor’s store. Further, when entertained shoppers like the promotional events and wish for more of such promotions, they tend to think more positively about the sponsor, view the promotional event as a good way to highlight the sponsor, and desire to shop more at the retail sponsor. These are important findings for advertising research practitioners, as they suggest that event attendees focus on how the sponsoring retailer fits with their image and sense of self.

How Rich-Media Video Technology Boosts Branding Goals: Different Online Advertising Formats Drive Different Brand-Performance Metrics

Leah Spalding, Sally Cole, and Amy Fayer , Volume 49, No. 3, September 2009, pp.285-292

Why use rich media in brand campaigns? More than 4,000 online campaigns in Dynamic Logic’s MarketNorms database were compared to identify the brand impact of those campaigns that used rich media as compared to those that used “simple” Flash and image formats. Delta scores for the campaigns were compared across five branding metrics. Results indicated that campaigns using rich-media formats generally had stronger branding effects compared to campaigns using GIF/JPG and “simple” Flash formats. Campaigns using rich-media advertisements with video features showed the strongest performance. The results suggest new strategies for improving brand campaign performance based on advertising format choice.

Winning the Super “Buzz” Bowl: How Biometrically-Based Emotional Engagement Correlates with Online Views and Comments for Super Bowl Advertisements

Caleb J Siefert, Ravi Kothuri, Devra B Jacobs, Brian Levine, Joseph Plummer, and Carl D Marci , Volume 49, No. 3, September 2009, pp.293-303

Super Bowl advertisements have become almost as famous as the game itself. Between production costs and the price of air time, companies who advertise in the Super Bowl do so at considerable expense. Return on investment for Super Bowl advertisements is strengthened by wide viewership, pregame media chatter, and postgame buzz among consumers. Not all advertisements, however, generate the same degree of buzz. Recent models of advertising effectiveness have emphasized the importance of emotions, suggesting that advertisements that engage consumers on emotional levels will be most effective. This study examines how emotional engagement with Super Bowl advertisements relates to an important area of consumer response: online buzz. A biologically-based measure of audience engagement was used to monitor a sample of adults (N = 30) as they viewed Super Bowl XLII live. Advertising scores derived from biometric response ratings for Super Bowl advertisements were highly correlated with online buzz (i.e., the number of times an advertisement was commented on and the number of times it was viewed online). Results of the study are discussed with regard to the role of emotions in advertising and the utility of biometric measures for assessing consumers’ emotional engagement with advertising content.

Research on Advertising in a Recession: A Critical Review and Synthesis

Gerard J Tellis and Kethan Tellis , Volume 49, No. 3, September 2009, pp.304-327

Based on an extensive review of research on advertising in a recession, the authors identify over 40 related studies. Ten of these studies involve original empirical analyses of cross-sectional or time series data. The rest are theoretical discussions, reviews, cases, or opinions. The empirical studies may be classified into four groups based on the dependent variable analyzed: (1) sensitivity of advertising expenditures to the economy, (2) sensitivity of brand versus private-label share to economic expansions and contractions, (3) impact of advertising in a recession to sales or market share during or after a recession, (4) impact of advertising in a recession to profits during and after the recession. The authors critically review these studies and synthesize the major findings.

Beauty is in the Eye of the Tech Manager: How Technology Orientation and Interactive-Media Knowledge Can Drive (or Stall) Change

Larry Chiagouris and Vishal Lala , Volume 49, No. 3, September 2009, pp.328-338

Traditional media tools often are criticized for the waste of targeting noncustomers. Although marketing managers are aware of the potential for waste in the use of traditional media, such vehicles continue to dominate media budgets. In this article, we explored the conditions under which managers are more likely to act on their perceptions of media waste in comparing traditional media with interactive media. Based on a national survey of managers in the United States, we found that their perceptions of wastefulness of traditional marketing media on implementation of interactive-marketing technologies are contingent upon their own personal technology orientation and their hierarchical position in the organization. Specifically, perception of media waste will lead to an increase in interactive-marketing technology budgets and use if the manager is technology oriented or is in a senior management position.

Metrics That Matter: Identifying the Importance of Consumer Wants and Needs

Martin R Lautman and Koen Pauwels , Volume 49, No. 3, September 2009, pp.339-359

How can the importance of consumer wants and needs be quantified? Using data sets from multiple consumer brand and advertising tracking studies, several standard traditional market research techniques are compared to vector autoregression (VAR) modeling. It is demonstrated that by utilizing VAR models and resolving causal ambiguity, key performance indicators can be identified that not only correlate with traditional market research summary metrics, such as overall ratings and purchase interest, but that also drive brand sales/share and thereby qualify as metrics that matter. The analytic philosophy underlying the VAR analytic approach also is shown to be consistent with (and complementary to) market mix modeling analysis. Presented is a procedure for the simultaneous assessment of the relative and absolute impact of multiple marketing initiatives on baseline and incremental sales—including advertising and promotion effects and traditional consumer awareness and attitudinal metrics—facilitating resource-allocation decisions and providing marketers within a single framework for return on marketing investment optimization.

The Effectiveness of Combining Online and Print Advertisements: Is the Whole Better than the Individual Parts?

Lea M Wakolbinger, Michaela Denk, and Klaus Oberecker , Volume 49, No. 3, September 2009, pp.360-372

Cross-media advertising has received wide attention from practitioners over the last years, but there are only few experimental studies that analyze the effectiveness of integrating online and print advertising. Contributing to this relevant research field, this article analyzes advertising effectiveness of print and online media as well as the impact of combining these two media forms on overall advertising effectiveness. Our study supports existing findings that print and online advertising feature the same advertising effectiveness. Our experimental data, however, also indicate advantages of cross-media advertising.

Beavers, Bubbles, Bees, and Moths: An Examination of Animated Spokescharacters in DTC Prescription-Drug Advertisements and Websites

Kartik Pashupati , Volume 49, No. 3, September 2009, pp.373-393

Several prescription drug brands use animated characters in direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising. This article draws on the literature on spokescharacters to address four research questions: 1) What different types of animated spokescharacters are used in DTC advertising? 2) How are prescription drug marketers using spokescharacters in DTC advertising? 3) To what extent are these characters integrated into the websites for these brands? 4) Is there any evidence that the use of animated spokescharacters enhances advertising effectiveness? Animated characters are used in various ways, such as the symbol of a disease, a victim, or as the mechanism of action. Brands vary greatly in their integration of spokescharacters into DTC websites. Evidence from secondary data indicates that brands using spokescharacters perform better than average in recall and in brand-association tests.

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