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Celebrating 50 years, the Journal of Advertising Research 50th Anniversary Special Edition is packed with analysis and insights from over 40 internationally renowned academics and industry leaders.
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Keeping Score: Sports and Marketing
Catching Lightning in a Bottle
Pat La Pointe
The Various Words of Mouth: Moving Beyond the “Road-to-Damascus” Conversion
Take Your Pick: Kate Moss or the Girl Next Door?—The Effectiveness of Cosmetics Advertising
Michael Antioco, Dirk Smeesters, and Aline Le Boedec
In the last several years, marketers have started to use “nonidealized” models in advertisements (i.e., “Dove’s Campaign for Real Beauty”). Little is known, however, about the effects of “nonidealized” advertising on consumers and whether this type of advertising—when compared to idealized advertising—is truly beneficial for the branded products promoted in these ads. Based on a sample of 347 French women exposed to either idealized or “nonidealized” models, the authors established that the way these advertising models have an effect on brand responses—specifically, the attitude toward (and the purchase intention of) a brand operates through a dual-process model. When a viewer had a high sense of self-esteem, it was crucial that both processes be understood simultaneously: The effect of the portrayed model’s body image on the brand responses can be suppressed by the model-evaluation process. The authors also note that consumers’ ages influenced the self-evaluative process following a quadratic function. Their place of residence (i.e., urban versus rural) influenced the self- and model-evaluation processes.
How Emotional Tugs Trump Rational Pushes: The Time Has Come to Abandon a 100-Year Old Advertising Model
This paper proposes a new model for how advertising works and how it should be measured. It seeks to demonstrate the importance of measuring emotional response to advertising and illustrates the flaws in conventional pre-testing measures of persuasion, cut-through, and message receipt. Drawing on empirical data, it shows how an emotional model of advertising and emotional measurement can lead to greater effectiveness and efficiency and to better planning and decision making.
The Power of Like: How Brands Reach (and Influence) Fans through Social-Media Marketing
Andrew Lipsman, Graham Mudd, Mike Rich, and Sean Bruich
This paper offers an in-depth analysis of how social media brand impressions reach Fans and Friends throughout Facebook, as opposed to just on brand Fan pages. The study profiles three major brands – Starbucks, Southwest Airlines, and Microsoft Bing – to examine the reach and frequency of branded content on the world’s largest social network.
Memo to Marketers: Quantitative Evidence for Change—How User-Generated Content Really Affects Brands
George Christodoulides, Colin Jevons, and Jennifer Bonhomme
Developed in response to the new challenges of the social Web, this study investigates how involvement with brand-related user-generated content (UGC) affects consumers’ perceptions of brands. The authors develop a model that provides new insights into the links between drivers of UGC creation, involvement, and consumer-based brand equity. Expert opinions were sought on a hypothesized model, which further was tested through data from an online survey of 202 consumers. The results provide guidance for managerial initiatives involving UGC campaigns for brand building. The findings indicate that consumer perceptions of co-creation, community, and self-concept have a positive impact on UGC involvement that, in turn, positively affects consumer-based brand equity. These empirical results have significant implications for avoiding problems and building deeper relationships between consumers and brands in the age of social media.
KEEPING SCORE—SPORTS AND MARKETING
The Flipside of the Sponsorship Coin: Do You Still Buy the Beer When the Brewer Underwrites a Rival Team?
This study investigated whether sponsorships can have negative brand effects in some subgroups in the target market. The study focused on European football (soccer), and results showed that fans of the Stockholm team AIK transferred their dislike of the rival team Hammarby to its sponsor, the beer brand Falcon. Mean scores on brand variables were considerably lower for AIK fans than for a control group who were fans of neither AIK nor Hammarby. Researchers and managers are recommended to consider possible negative effects of sponsorships in subgroups and to evaluate the target audience’s attitude toward the sponsored object.
Warning Flags on the Race Track: The Global Markets’ Verdict on Formula One Sponsorship
Joe Cobbs, Mark D. Groza, and Stephen W. Pruitt
The globalization of media content has encouraged the growth of cross-cultural promotional channels. Yet, empirical evaluations of advertising strategies at an international level are sparse. This study advances research in this emerging area by analyzing the global financial markets’ valuation of commercial sponsorships in Formula One (F1) motor racing. Although previous research indicated that U.S. markets have approved of similar promotional investments, the results of this international event study demonstrated that the market value of firms entering into F1 sponsorships decline upon announcement. The level of investment and nationality congruence of the sponsorship appear to enhance the probability for negative returns in shareholder value.
How Much Is Too Much? Collective Impact of Repetition and Position in Multi-segment Sports Broadcast
Yongick Jeong, Hai Tran, and Xinshu Zhao
This study explored the collective impact of repetition and position on advertising effectiveness as evidenced through recognition and likeability of advertisements that were broadcast at different times in the Super Bowl. The findings indicate that brands advertised more in the first half and brands that appeared in both halves but shown more in one half than the other were better recognized than those equally promoted in both halves. Meanwhile, advertisements presented in both halves but repeated more in the second half were less favored than those evenly shown in both halves. The results support theories of repetition and primacy effects.
Benchmarking the Use of QR Code in Mobile Promotion: Three Studies in Japan
Shintaro Okazaki, Hairong Li, and Morikazu Hirose
As a shortcut for mobile input, quick response (QR) code is increasingly being integrated in cross-media advertising campaigns in many countries of the world. Questions remain, however, about its actual use in different media, the motivations for consumers to use it and, especially, the perceived risks associated with using QR code. This study represents an initial exploration into these important issues. Findings from three studies in Japan indicate that QR codes are largely used in print media for promoting loyalty programs; convenience, savings, and quality are drivers of QR-code use; and perceived risks vary among different contexts in which consumers scan QR codes. Implications are presented for the effective use of QR code in mobile promotion.
Is An Advertisement Worth the Paper It’s Printed on? The Impact of Premium Print Advertising on Consumer Perceptions
Stefan Hampel, Daniel Heinrich, and Colin Campbell
Although more companies are using premium-print technologies in their advertising, empirical research has yet to examine the effectiveness of such executions. This article investigates the effect of premium-print advertising techniques on the key constructs of advertising impact and consumer behavior through a field experiment using participants drawn from the general population. Results show that tested advertisements employing premium-print technologies convey a greater sense of uniqueness and prestige than conventional advertising, boost consumer attitudes toward an advertisement as well as toward the brand, and enjoy higher ratings on measures of willingness to buy, positive word of mouth, and consumer willingness to pay a price premium.
The Hand, the Bill... or Both? The Role of Credibility in Handbill Acceptance
Gerard P. Prendergast, King Ting Wai, and Wing Yi Cheung
Handbills are paper advertisements that are distributed by hand to pedestrians. What roles do the credibility of the distributor and the credibility of the handbill have in the probability that a handbill offered will be accepted? Street intercept interviews with 223 pedestrians in Hong Kong showed that distributor credibility positively predicted handbill acceptance, but the credibility of the handbill itself mediated this relationship. Environmental concerns moderated the relationship between handbill credibility and handbill acceptance. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for advertisers, and a platform is sketched for future researchers to build on.
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Kate Sirkin – Starcom MediaVest Group