Download JAR

Celebrating 50 years, the Journal of Advertising Research 50th Anniversary Special Edition is packed with analysis and insights from over 40 internationally renowned academics and industry leaders.

Journal of Advertising Research - March 2009

Editorial – The Promise of Mobile

Geoffrey Precourt, Vol. 49, No. 1, Mar 2009, pp.1-2
The editorial of JAR 49,1 in which Editor Geoffrey Precourt introduces the issue's special theme: mobile marketing.
pdf Download Article »

Management Slant

Provides a bullet-point summary of key learnings and conclusions from the main articles in JAR issue 49,1 (2009).
pdf Download Article »

Viewpoint - The New Marketing Research Imperative: It’s about Learning

Joel Rubinson, Vol. 49, No. 1, Mar 2009, pp.7-9
In 2003, the Advertising Research Foundation (ARF) and ESOMAR helped drive a global Research Leaders Summit (RELEAS) initiative, where leaders of the research profession worked hard to redefine the vision and value strategy for market research. Since July 2008, the ARF’s Research Transformation Super-Council has been leading a team of the world’s best known marketers to once again attempt to redefine the mission, vision, and scope of the research function. In only five years, these two efforts resulted in remarkably different directions, which ARF Chief Research Officer Joel Rubinson discusses in this article.

Book Review of From Politics to Marketing: An Emotional Framework for Advertising

Raymond Pettit, Vol. 49, No. 1, Mar 2009, pp.10-11
A book review of "The Political Brain: The Role of Emotion in Deciding the Fate of the Nation, by Drew Westen (Perseus Book Group, Philadelphia, PA, May 2008)

The Tactical Use of Mobile Marketing: How Adolescents’ Social Networking Can Best Shape Brand Extensions

Shintaro Okazaki, Vol. 49, No. 1, Mar 2009, pp.12-26
The accelerating growth in mobile internet communications is giving rise to a new form of interactive marketing. This research identifies the factors that affect youth consumer participation in a mobile-based word-of-mouth (WOM) campaign. The study used a “real” brand promotion—a new men’s hairstyling wax launched in the adolescent market—to stimulate interest and participation. Specifically, consumers were encouraged to spread the information via WOM and participate in a hairstyle photo contest. A core attitudinal model consisted of interpersonal connectivity, self-identification with the mobile device, affective commitment to the promoted brand, attitude toward the campaign, and willingness to make referrals. The data—based on the responses from 1,705 teenagers between the ages of 13 and 18 years—fit the model well and provided empirical support for all the hypothesized relationships. The model was further analyzed in terms of latent mean structures, which revealed that face-to-face WOM elicited stronger affective brand commitment and attitude toward the campaign than mobile-based WOM. This pattern is reversed, however, in the willingness to make referrals, suggesting that mobil-based WOM may be persuasive even when adolescents are less interested in the campaign content.

The New Unwired World: An IAB Status Report on Mobile Advertising

Joe Laszlo and IAB Mobile Advertising Committee, Vol. 49, No. 1, Mar 2009, pp.27-43
Mobile advertising is one of the most exciting new frontiers in interactive advertising in the United States. As the internet is reinvented on mobile devices—smaller, more personal and personalized, ubiquitously accessible—established forms of interactive advertising will also evolve as they migrate from PCs to mobile devices. This study offers a guide to this emerging platform in the United States. It was compiled by the author with input from the Interactive Advertising Bureau Mobile Advertising Committee, a group including more than 100 agencies, advertisers, and media companies committed to making mobile a more efficient and effective platform.

Next-Generation Mobile Marketing: How Young Consumers React to Bluetooth-Enabled Advertising

Sheena Leek and George Christodoulides, Vol. 49, No. 1, Mar 2009, pp.44-53
Mobile devices are attractive media for directly communicating with consumers who have become busier and more difficult to reach. While SMS (short message service) advertising has received some attention in the literature, Bluetooth-enabled advertising is still unexplored. This research aims to investigate younger consumers’ acceptance of Bluetooth-delivered advertising. Although the majority of the respondents were willing to accept this form of advertising, they needed both to be in control of the frequency with which they receive messages and also to be reassured that the medium could ensure privacy and security. The research further indicated that peers influence the acceptance of Bluetooth-driven advertising.

The March of Mobile Marketing: New Chances for Consumer Companies, New Opportunities for Mobile Operators

Roman Friedrich, Florian Gröne, Klaus Hölbling, and Michael Peterson, Vol. 49, No. 1, Mar 2009, pp.54-61
The mobile channel offers an exciting opportunity for marketers—one that most have yet to fully embrace. One avenue to pursue is the creation of a branded mobile offering, in which the marketer creates a portal dedicated to its product, service, or brand. With constant access to each customer, branded mobile portals can build interactive relationships by identifying consumers not only in terms of personal identity, but also in terms of commercial behavior, geographic location, and social and communication patterns. When consumers sign up for a branded mobile channel, they get access to a variety of distinct offerings that can include exclusive content as well as applications, games, special opportunities, incentives, and emotional experiences—all of which reinforce the value of the sponsoring brand far beyond its standard uses. The rewards for companies that capitalize on these possibilities—deeper engagement with consumers, increased brand loyalty, and enhanced customer lifetime value—are not to be missed.

Emotional Engagement: How Television Builds Big Brands At Low Attention

Robert Heath, Vol. 49, No. 1, Mar 2009, pp.62-73
This article proposes a new definition for engagement that is independent of attention. Engagement is defined as “the amount of subconscious ‘feeling’ going on when an advertisement is being processed.” An “emotional engagement” model is developed that shows how strong brands can be built without the need for the high levels of attention that advertising usually demands. Finally, empirical evidence is presented demonstrating that, although TV advertising excels at building strong brands, on-air commercials get less than half the attention of print advertising. This confirms TV advertising is a high engagement, low attention medium.

Too Much Information: Does the Internet Dig Too Deep?

Dinaz Kachhi and Michael W. Link, Vol. 49, No. 1, Mar 2009, pp.74-81
A lot of attention has been focused on the array of digital measurement tools; relatively less consideration has been given to people’s acceptance of these devices. There is no limitation in developing sophisticated measurement tools. However, the challenge is overcoming the perception of these devices as a privacy threat. Therefore, a set of questions was designed to determine people’s attitudes and behaviors toward privacy issues linked to participation in television and internet measurement by recruiting 2,900 respondents using the Intercept methodology. The data analysis indicated distinct demographic patterns of attitudes and behaviors toward privacy issues. These findings are discussed in terms of determining strategies to improve participation in research efforts.

Split-Second Recognition: What Makes Outdoor Advertising Work?

Lex van Meurs and Mandy Aristoff, Vol. 49, No. 1, Mar 2009, pp.82-92
CBS Outdoor used a tachistoscope to determine how long it takes to recognize the brand/product advertised in 187 outdoor posters in the Netherlands. Additionally, CBS Outdoor measured the creative appeal of these advertisements. Using 80 content and format variables, an explanatory model was developed to measure creative appeal and brand/product recognition. Some preliminary findings: Clear branding and the inclusion of new-product information enhance product recognition.; Large amounts of text and pictures of people delay product recognition; Lengthy, large headlines, information cues, humor, and images of women delay brand recognition; Short headlines, a somewhat longer body text, and a product shot enhance the creative appeal of posters; Specifying a brand name in the headline or providing price information reduces appeal.

"Some Assembly Required": Comparing Disclaimers in Children’s TV Advertising in Turkey and the United States

Aysen Bakir, Vol. 49, No. 1, Mar 2009, pp.93-103
Disclaimers in advertisements might strongly influence how advertising is produced and presented to the public. Examining how marketers use such disclaimers in different countries is an important part of understanding how advertising reaches out to children. To date, studies of disclaimers with respect to children have only focused on U.S. advertising. This study examines differences in how disclaimers are used in both Turkish and U.S. children’s television commercials.

Learning from Winners: How IBM Seized the Day

Raymond Pettit, Vol. 49, No. 1, Mar 2009, pp.104-110
Great advertising captures and engages—often in ways we cannot exactly explain. On the wings of great campaigns, companies create whole new categories of products or services. They make us conscious of “needs” we would never even contemplated. There is something almost magic about great advertising. And yet, all too often (by some estimate, more than 90 percent of the time), the results are far from magic. They are dismal. New products fail and existing brands drift aimlessly—unmoved by the millions of dollars lavished to support them. Why is this? Why is it that some advertising proves powerfully effective, while the mass of campaigns wither on the media plans that bore them? Is advertising inherently a roll of the dice—a hit-or-miss gamble with few guiding principles or established truths? Or is there a better model of effective advertising waiting to be discovered? If so, where might we find the data trail to lead us there? These are the profound, urgent questions at the core of Learning from Winners (Lawrence Erlbaum, 2007), a powerfully useful collection of essays by Dr. Raymond Pettit, Senior Vice President of Research and Standards for the Advertising Research Foundation (ARF). Tapping into the archive of more than decade of ARF Ogilvy Award winners, Dr. Pettit tells stories and shares lessons that demonstrate how imaginatively applied research can lead to new brand insights, redefine problems or markets, and support intelligent risk taking. In his quest for marketing truths, Dr. Pettit had an edge with the discovery, in a dusty storeroom, a decade’s worth of submissions to ARF’s David Ogilvy Research Excellence Awards. In this second installment of a series of excerpts from Learning from Winners, Dr. Pettit explores the power of marketing research to drive measurably successful advertising and marketing campaigns that are a critical engine of business growth. The focus is IBM. The time is just a decade ago. And the lesson is how research can turn an uncertain business situation into an opportunity that drives new lines of business as it reinforces a company’s traditional strengths.

For more information

For more information about the Journal visit or contact Catherine Gardner, Managing Editor,

If you would like to contribute an article, submit online at or email with any questions.

Subscribe to JAR

There’s advertising theory. And there’s advertising practice. With JAR you get the best of both worlds.
Subscribe Now »
Get Free Content Alerts »


"JAR keeps us grounded—years of valuable experience written and shared with the industry to help keep us focused on more meaningful marketing and research practices."
Kate Sirkin – Starcom MediaVest Group