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Celebrating 50 years, the Journal of Advertising Research 50th Anniversary Special Edition is packed with analysis and insights from over 40 internationally renowned academics and industry leaders.
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Letter from the CEO
Gayle Fuguitt, Vol. 53, No. 2, 2013
Gayle Fuguitt, CEO and president of the Advertising Research Foundation, introduces herself and describes the future for the Journal of Advertising Research.
What We Know About Advertising
Geoffrey Precourt, Vol. 53, No. 2, 2013, pp.121-122
In his editorial, Geoffrey Precourt introduces the articles in this issue of JAR. These include papers from the second "Empirical Generalizations in Advertising" conference, held in partnership with the Wharton School and the Ehrenberg-Bass Institute. Subjects covered in other featured papers include the use of nostalgia, Super Bowl advertising, and what drives television viewer behavior.
Executive Editor’s Letter
The 2012 "Journal Numbers": Answers to Common Queries
Douglas West, Vol. 53, No. 2, 2013, pp.129-130
In this commentary, the executive editor of the Journal of Advertising Research, looks back at the Journal in 2012 in numbers. This includes the acceptance rate, how long an author must wait for a publication decision, how many countries submit papers and what types of articles are submitted.
De-Clutter Your Mind: Seven Worries You Can Drop from Your Research Agenda
Jenni Romaniuk , Vol. 53, No. 2, 2013, pp.131-133
Jenni Romaniuk presents and explains seven facets of marketing that are common to strategies, briefs and models but lack evidence of any impact on brand performance. These are creating a brand personality, finding the best position, overcoming consumer rejection, benchmarking to competitor brands to judge performance, searching for brand loyalists, heeding negative word of mouth and differentiation from competitors.
The Secret Sauce for Super Bowl Advertising: What Makes Marketing Work in the World's Most Watched Event?
Jin-Woo Kim, Traci H. Freling, and Douglas B. Grisaffe, Vol. 53, No. 2, 2013, pp.134-149
This study investigated the relationship between Super Bowl advertising and advertisers’ market valuation, identifying several factors that influence the financial rewards of this media-placement strategy. Specifically, the authors examined the impact of each commercial’s featured characters and appeals - and the product benefits promoted - on abnormal stock returns for sponsoring companies that appear in Super Bowl advertising. Event study results showed that Super Bowl advertising is positively related to abnormal stock returns for advertisers. Cross-sectional regression analyses also indicated that market value of Super Bowl advertisers is positively related to likeable characters, emotional appeals, and approach messaging. The combined use of likeable characters with either emotional appeals or approach messages also is positively associated with firm valuation.
How Strong is the Pull of the Past?
Measuring Personal Nostalgia Evoked by Advertising
Altaf Merchant, Kathryn LaTour, John B. Ford, and Michael S. LaTour, Vol. 53, No. 2, 2013, pp.150-165
Marketers frequently evoke personal nostalgia in their advertising. To date, scales have been developed to measure the propensity to get nostalgic but not the actual dimensions of personal nostalgia. Results from four studies show that advertising evoked personal nostalgia comprises four correlated but distinct dimensions: past imagery, positive emotions, negative emotions, and physiological reactions. This multidimensional scale showed a high level of validity and reliability. Moreover, due to careful choice of sampling frames, the study demonstrates a high level of external generalizability. Evaluating nostalgia-based advertising using the study’s multidimensional scale may provide marketers with strategic insights for developing and fine-tuning advertising aimed at inducing nostalgia among consumers.
An Episode-by-Episode Examination: What Drives Television-Viewer Behavior: Digging Down into Audience Satisfaction with Television Drama
Donald Miller Dennis and David Michael Gray, Vol. 53, No. 2, 2013, pp.166-174
Today, digital television enables consumers to record and watch live television via an array of hand-held devices. To help increase the effectiveness of programming and advertising in this digital age, the authors studied the attitudes and behavior of viewers during the course of a series. The findings revealed Audience Satisfaction as a dynamic construct that is predicted by Expectations, Program Performance, and, to a very limited extent, Connectedness over time. The implications suggest that television producers, directors, and advertisers could reap added value by adjusting content on the basis of between season and within season program market research and consequential insight.
Empirical Generalizations: New Laws for Digital Marketing: How Advertising Research Must Change
Yoram (Jerry) Wind, Byron Sharp, and Karen Nelson-Field, Vol. 53, No. 2, 2013, pp.175-180
This article summarizes the themes and papers presented at the Empirical Generalizations in Advertising conference, held in June 2012. It introduces the six conference papers included in this Journal, which cover subjects such as advertising clutter, digital campaign delivery and cross-media synergy versus cross-devices. It considers the standards for quality research and describes practical examples of empirical laws in action.
Digging Deeper Down into the Empirical Generalization of Brand Recall: Adding Owned and Earned Media to Paid-Media Touchpoints
Frank Harrison, Vol. 53, No. 2, 2013, pp.181-185
ZenithOptimedia’s Touchpoints ROI Tracker research, based on interviews with over 700,000 consumers in 47 countries, shows that across paid, owned, and earned consumer contact points, users of brands have a higher propensity to recall the brands that they use than non-users buying in the same category. On average, brand recall amongst users is 1.7 times greater (the user multiplier) than amongst non-users. There is significant variation in the user multiplier by product category, brand size, market maturity, and touchpoint type. Marketers of brands with higher user multipliers, particularly those marketing smaller brands, have a harder job to reach non-buyers than those with low multipliers.
More Mutter About Clutter: Extending Empirical Generalizations to Facebook
Karen Nelson-Field, Erica Riebe, and Byron Sharp, Vol. 53, No. 2, 2013, pp.186-191
This article examines the impact of clutter on advertising placed on Facebook. This platform is quite different from broadcast media, yet the current study unveiled very similar findings as previously seen for television and radio—that advertisements were better recalled when placed among fewer other advertisements. The improvements in advertising recall, however, do not appear to be sufficient to justify the likely price premium that advertisers would have to pay to reduce clutter on Facebook. The research found that larger brands are more immune to clutter than small brands, so low-clutter environments are more important for lesser-known (i.e., smaller and new) brands.
If an Advertisement Runs Online and No One Sees It, Is It Still an Ad?
Empirical Generalizations in Digital Advertising
Stephanie Flosi, Gian Fulgoni, and Andrea Vollman, Vol. 53, No. 2, 2013, pp.192-199
This study presents findings from three charter studies involving leading global advertisers in three key geographical regions: the United States, Europe, and Canada. The goal of the research was to identify and better understand the incidence of sub-optimal digital campaign delivery as it pertains to viewability, audience delivery, geographic targeting, and brand safety. Through an evaluation of the study findings, several significant empirical generalizations emerged, and this article highlights these generalizations and discusses their implications for the digital advertising ecosystem.
Is the Multi-Platform Whole More Powerful Than Its Separate Parts?
Measuring the Sales Effects of Cross-Media Advertising
Jennifer Taylor, Rachel Kennedy, Colin McDonald, Laurent Larguinat, Yassine El Ouarzazi, and Nassim Haddad, Vol. 53, No. 2, 2013, pp.200-211
Cross-media campaigns are becoming a norm, yet there is a lack of knowledge on how they impact sales. This paper documents the sales response to cross-media campaigns and finds that, when online advertising is added to a television campaign, the extra reach achieved is primarily duplicated. Regularly a single television exposure stimulates sales among those exposed, with online advertising demonstrating a similar yet less consistent response. We do not find evidence of a synergy in sales impact, where the sum effect of exposure to both television and online is greater than the parts. We highlight challenges with such single-source research.
What Works Best When Combining Television Sets, PCs, Tablets, or Mobile Phones?
How Synergies Across Devices Result From Cross-Device Effects and Cross-Format Synergies
Duane Varan, Jamie Murphy, Charles F. Hofacker, Jennifer A. Robinson, Robert F. Potter, and Steven Bellman, Vol. 53, No. 2, 2013, pp.212-220
Advertising research often confounds device effects (e.g., television sets, radios, and personal computers) with communication format effects (e.g., respectively, video, audio, and Web sites). Across four experiments, this study documents empirical patterns of cross-device effects among television sets, PCs, iPods, and mobile phones. In three experiments, the format was identical across devices, and the device made no difference to advertising effectiveness. The fourth experiment - with different formats and devices - showed sequential synergy effects. Synergy can strengthen or weaken advertising campaigns that combine multiple communication devices. The combined results of four experiments suggest possible cross-format synergies but not cross-device synergies.
Achieving Reach in a Multi-Media Environment:
How a Marketer's First Step Provides the Direction for the Second
Jenni Romaniuk, Virginia Beal, and Mark Uncles, Vol. 53, No. 2, 2013, pp.221-230
Do the audiences reached by different media touchpoints match category user profiles? Does a second media touchpoint help reach a new audience? To provide answers, the current study analyzed 16 touchpoints across 23 data sets. Audiences reached by television, gift-packs, in-store displays, and outdoor advertisements closely matched category user profiles. Most other media skewed to heavy category users. Positive word of mouth and social media also skewed to heavy brand users. This knowledge can help advertisers select media to reach certain types of buyers. Analysis of media pairs also revealed that second touchpoints tended to add more duplicate than new audience. Therefore, media should be added only after exhausting the capacity of the first media to achieve cost-efficient reach.
The Marketer's Dilemma: Focusing on a Target or a Demographic?
The Utility of Data-Integration Techniques
Mike Hess and Pete Doe, Vol. 53, No. 2, 2013, pp.231-236
Data-integration techniques can be useful tools as marketers continue to improve overall efficiency and return on investment. This is true because of the value of the techniques themselves and also because the current advertising market, based on demographic buying, has major opportunities for arbitrage in the range of 10 percent to 25 percent (where in that range depends on the nature of the vertical). The current study reviews different methods of data integration in pursuing such negotiations.
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Kate Sirkin – Starcom MediaVest Group