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Journal of Advertising Research - September 2008

Guest Editorial: Marketing in the Era of Long-Tail Media

Joel Rubinson

Editorial of JAR 48,3 (2008), discussing and introducing the issue's theme of 'The Long Tail of Media'
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Management Slant

Provides a bullet-point summary of key learnings and conclusions from the main articles in JAR issue 48,3 (2008).

Viewpoint: A Framework for Advertising in the Digital Age

Stephen J. Kim, pp.310-312

Marketers and their clients are both striving to respond to consumers' new digital behaviors and the accompanying evolution of their attitudes toward advertising. While advertisers and agencies are making great advances in creating digital campaigns, the way forward is still not easily discernable. As such, developing an advertising model focusing on consumer attitudes and activities in these areas is key, most particularly in the form of producing content that is valuable to a brand's customers. This marks a transformation of the traditional 'interruption' model of communications, and requires something considerably more sophisticated. In-game ads are one example where such a strategy has been successfully implemented, while developing technology will also change how consumers interact with digital media. The development of online 'communities' is another key trend. To keep up with all these developments, two things will be required: a culture of innovation, and remaining flexible and open-minded to change.

The Long Tail and Its Implications for Media Audience Measurement

Scott McDonald, Sept 2008, pp.313-319

As argued by Chris Anderson in The Long Tail, global scale markets, falling costs of storage, and falling costs of distribution have resulted in digitally based businesses today being able to sell niche items and niche content profitably—this is reflected in media usage as well as in retail examples. Though media have been fragmenting into ever-smaller niches for some time, it has only been economically viable to measure the audiences of the largest media outlets. To accurately measure new media audiences, it seems likely that hybrid systems will be adopted, using random probability sampling for the biggest TV programs and largest magazines, for example, and non-sample-based measures for the niche media events in the long tail. This will pose a serious challenge to a media industry that has tended to abhor data integration, modeling, fusion, and hybrid systems.

Exploring the Effectiveness of Advertising in the Full Episode Player

Mark Loughney, Martin Eichholz and Michelle Hagger, pp.320-328

The ABC Television Network has undertaken a series of research projects to understand the effectiveness of advertising in online streaming of TV episodes on The results of the current study suggested that the single sponsorship model of the ABC Full Episode Player yielded a level of advertising effectiveness that exceeded historical benchmarks for TV. Average unaided sponsorship recall was nearly two and a half times that of typical advertising recall on TV. In addition, pretest and posttest comparisons showed substantial increases in top of mind brand awareness and positive effects on brand attributes. The results of the study will be discussed with regard to implications for online video advertising generally, with suggestions for future research to clarify issues not specifically addressed in this study.

Long Tail Media in the Store

Herb Sorensen, pp.329-338

There are on the order of one quadrillion (1 followed by 15 zeros) media exposures annually in stores around the world. The question of how those exposures are presently allocated and the current dynamics of in-store media are addressed in this article by examining media exposure in a typical supermarket. Thinking of shoppers in a store as an “audience” in the traditional media sense can introduce some intriguing possibilities. The long tail analogy is apt for shopper marketing in the sense of the small number of products that produce very large unit sales, but there also is a variety of media to attract shoppers’ attention in stores, which differ greatly in both exposures and effectiveness. This article points the way to an objective view of this crowded and complex field.

“Make Measurable What Is Not So”: Consumer Mix Modeling for the Evolving Media World

John Hallward, pp.339-351

Today’s common measures of reach, frequency, share-of-voice, and cost-per-point are very factual, but unfortunately they lack an evaluative assessment of the quality of attention to the advertising, the brand impact, efficiency, and value to the brand. Advertising recall does not follow media consumption. High share-of-voice is not efficient. Creative content is critical. And different touch-points work in different ways, for different goals. This article reviews several issues that need to be considered for proper media measurement and introduces consumer mix modeling to help make measurable what is not so. Media planners need such an approach to better measure their holistic marketing programs and to understand the impact, by target, on the different brand objectives.

The Advertising Impact of an Interactive TV Program on the Recall of an Embedded Commercial

Verolien Cauberghe and Patrick De Pelsmacker, pp.352-362

The impact of two dimensions of television program induced interactivity on advertisement and brand recall of an embedded commercial was examined with 246 respondents. Program-induced two-way communication (playing along with a quiz) had a strong negative impact on advertisement and brand recall. The negative effect of user control (amount of available clicks in the program) was also noticeable, but less prominent. There also appeared to be an interaction effect of two-way communication and user control on advertisement and brand recall. A moderate level of user control results in better recall when the respondent had no play along possibilities, but leads to less recall when he/she could play along with the quiz. Managerial implications and future research options are suggested.

The Impact of SMS Advertising on Members of a Virtual Community

Jacques Nantel and Yasha Sekhavat, pp.363-374

This empirical research brings interesting insights concerning mobile commerce. Our objective is to determine the influence of language (conventional language versus short message service (SMS) language) and spokeperson on the effectiveness of SMS advertising. The experiment took place in a virtual community of gamers equipped with cellular telephones. After having exchanged messages during several days in the forum’s community, participants received one of four messages (varied with the language and the source of the message) that they evaluated afterward. Our results offer new and significant insights to managers wishing to use this medium. Unlike what is often thought, our results show that SMS language is not always recommended. While known and credible companies could use shortened, original, and entertaining SMS language, little known companies or ordinary spokepersons should refrain from doing so. Thus a message relayed by a spokeperson with little credibility, even if he is a member of the targeted community, should have a sober and clear content with a conventional language.

Measuring Consumer Interactivity in Response to Campaigns Coupling Mobile and Television Media

Robert Davis and Laszlo Sajtos, pp.375-391

Consumers are increasingly using the mobile channel to be interactive with television programming and advertisements. To understand this emerging phenomena, we develop a model (the LOOP), conceptualizing the consumers interactivity when using their mobile phone to interact with television content. This model proposes new thinking regarding the role of the mobile channel in the consumer’s experience of the interactive television content. We define the consumer’s interactivity in terms of four characteristics: synchronicity, two-way dialogue, contingency, and user control. Based upon these characteristics, we use New Zealand and U.S. interactive television content related campaign data to develop five measures of campaign response effectiveness – Potential Audience Dialogue (PAD), Active Audience Dialogue (AAD), Interactive Audience Dialogue (IAD), Contingent Audience Loyalty (CAL), and Contingent Audience Wearout (CAW) We found similar response patterns across the tested New Zealand and U.S. campaigns, with more significant relationships emerging from interactive consumers who are loyal across campaigns.

Advertising Creativity Matters

Micael Dahlén, Fredrik Törn and Sara Rosengren, pp.392-403

Could “wasteful” advertising creativity that does not add to the functionality of the advertisement (i.e., it neither enhances recall and liking of the advertising, nor increases comprehension and persuasiveness of the communicated message) be useful? An experimental study shows that it can. By signaling greater effort on behalf of the advertiser and a greater ability of the brand, advertising creativity enhances both brand interest and perceived brand quality. The effects are mediated by consumer-perceived creativity, suggesting that consumers are important judges of creativity. Bringing advertising creativity into new light, the results provide implications for the development, measurement, and positioning of creative advertising.

A Content Analysis of Music Placement in Prime-Time Television Advertising

David Allan, pp.404-417

Music is very popular in advertising. You can hear as much music in commercials as you can on some commercial radio stations. This research analyzed 3,456 prime-time television commercials to not only quantify, but qualify the placement of music in advertising. Overall, 94 percent of the total advertisements (3,456) and 86 percent of the unique advertisements (715) contained some type of music. Of the unique music advertisements, 14 percent contained popular music, 81 percent used needledrop, and 5 percent utilized jingles. Popular music (primarily pop and rock) was observed more often in automotive, audio/video, and food commercials than any other product category. Popular music was more likely to be relevant to the narrative in the commercial than the product or service. This study facilitates future trending and encourages further investigation of the role of music in advertising effectiveness.

Attributes of Likeable Television Commercials in Asia

Kim-Shyan Fam, pp.418-432

Many advertisers aim to present advertisements that will at least be liked by those who see them, as it has been suggested that advertising likeability can lead to advertising recall, favorable brand attitudes, and possibly purchase intention. This study investigates consumer attitudes in Asia toward television commercials by determining attributes that are liked and disliked in advertisements. Data were obtained from telephone interviews conducted in Hong Kong, Shanghai, Jakarta, Bangkok, and Mumbai, each country with distinct cultural and religious beliefs. The results show that “Entertaining” is the most liked attribute across the five cities. However, the importance of other likeable attributes varied, and the study concludes by providing several explanations to the variations in an Asian context.

The Impact of Celebrity–Product Incongruence on the Effectiveness of Product Endorsement

Jung-Gyo Lee and Esther Thorson, pp.433-449

The present study examines how different degrees of celebrity–product incongruence influence the persuasiveness of celebrity endorsement. Schema-congruity framework provides the theoretical basis for suggesting that a moderate mismatch between a celebrity’s image and a product’s image would produce more favorable responses to advertisements than either a complete match or an extreme mismatch. This study also looks at how consumer characteristics, namely an individual’s own levels of enduring involvement with a product category, moderate schema congruity effects. Two experiments were conducted to test these issues using two types of match-up factors: physical attractiveness and expertise of a celebrity endorser. The results show that celebrity endorsements are evaluated more favorably in terms of purchase intention when there is a moderate mismatch than when there is either a complete match or an extreme mismatch. Such effects are found to be more pronounced among participants with higher product involvement than those with lower product involvement.

The Ethical Aspects of Direct-to-Consumer Advertising of Prescription Drugs in the United Kingdom: Physician versus Consumer Views

Jon Reast, Dayananda Palihawadana and Haseeb Shabbir, pp.450-464

This article reports the findings of two surveys examining U.K. physician and consumer attitudes to the introduction of direct to consumer advertising (DTCA), and its likely impact, if implemented, in the strategically important U.K. prescription drug market. The findings, in general, suggest that neither physicians nor consumers are positively disposed to the advertising of prescriptions drugs, although significant differences in attitudes toward such policies emerged between the two groups based upon “ethics and approval levels,” “ethics-related impacts,” and the “impact of unbranded disease awareness campaigns.” The findings for consumers and physicians do not at present support the extension of DTCA in the United Kingdom, but are supportive of a continuation of unbranded “disease awareness” campaigns. Guidance for practitioners within the established U.S. DTCA marketplace is also provided.

The Branding Impact of Brand Websites: Do Newsletters and Consumer Magazines Have a Moderating Role?

Brigitte Müller, Laurent Flores, Meriem Agrebi and Jean Louis Chandon, pp.465-472

The internet offers both growth and loyalty opportunities for brands. To this end, in recent years, companies have accelerated the development of their websites, including richer and more interactive content as well as relationship tools such as email newsletter and consumer magazines. Using the example of a leading French manufacturer’s website, the present research demonstrates that visitors satisfied with their overall website experience are more inclined to revisit and recommend the site and in turn develop more positive attitudes toward the brand as well as higher purchase intent. These relations are stronger for consumers that are members of the website email newsletter program and those that receive the brand consumer magazine.

Marketing Metaphoria: What Deep Metaphors Reveal About the Minds of Consumers – Gerald Zaltman and Lindsay H. Zaltman

Book review by Joel Rubinson - pp.473-474

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