Journal of Advertising Research (JAR)
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Celebrating 50 years, the Journal of Advertising Research 50th Anniversary Special Edition is packed with analysis and insights from over 40 internationally renowned academics and industry leaders.

Journal of Advertising Research

The Journal of Advertising Research is the R&D vehicle for professionals in all areas of marketing including media, research, advertising, and communications.

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What We Know about Peer-To-Peer Marketing

A Preview of the Journal of Advertising Research, June 2014
(Vol. 54, Issue 2)


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Letter from the CEO
Building a Global Presence
Gayle Fuguitt cites the ARF’s continued mission to expand its presence across the nation and around the world. Participating in, and hosting big events such as the ARF’s June Audience Measurement 2014 conference, “provide a global platform for us to deepen our thought leadership and footprint to address game-changing areas of research: Cross-Platform measurement, Mobile, Neuroscience, and our “Foundations of Quality 2” (FoQ 2) initiative, to drive better decisions.”

Lessons
Pitfalls and Fraud in Online Advertising Metrics: What Makes Advertisers Vulnerable to Cheaters, and How They Can Protect Themselves
Harvard Business School’s Benjamin Edelman brings fresh insights on fraud and errors in advertising metrics and cautions advertisers to recognize their vulnerabilities. “Advertisers often accept exceptional risks, as if online ad markets are invulnerable
to long-known weaknesses,” writes Edelman. “In fact, these problems persist, and advertisers that ignore the situation can find themselves all the more vulnerable.”

Numbers, Please
Uses and Misuses of Online-Survey Panels in Digital Research: Digging Past the Surface
Gian Fulgoni, co-founder and chairman emeritus of comScore, explores the risks of using online-survey panels for marketing managers who rely on online-survey results to make spending decisions on digital marketing. Fulgoni’s research shows survey panel respondents’ often as being “heavier users of the Internet than the average consumer—causing their survey responses to be biased toward the Internet” and unable to “recall accurately their own actual behavior.”

Speaker’s Box
Head in the Clouds? Beyond Employment in the Creative Services Industry
 “Cloud-based” agencies are on the rise and will soon become part of the mainstream in the creative services economy, predicts Julian Stubbs, founder of UP There, Everywhere. Stubbs describes these firms as organizations consisting of “members”, not “employees” that use nontraditional operational tools offering many opportunities for marketers and research. “With recurring economic downturns and with employment patterns shifting dramatically in our flattened global world, we need new solutions,” Stubbs argues. “We need to find new ways to work—to meet the ever higher productivity needs and to meet employees’ growing demand for more balanced lives.”

Research Quality
Is Mobile a Reliable Platform for Survey Taking? Defining Quality in Online Surveys from Mobile Respondents
An ARF  “Foundations of Quality 2” initiative, citing a surge in Smartphone and tablet ownership, challenges researchers to improve survey taking on mobile devices. William A. Cook, chief strategy officer and founder, e-Strategic Advantage, writes: “Over the next five years, the use of touch-screen mobile devices will grow dramatically, and respondents can be expected to use them at a higher rate, as the screens expand (somewhat) and the devices gain more multi-purpose media use.”


Features

How Corporate Cultures Drive Advertising Budgets: Best Practices Combine Heuristics and Algorithmic Tools
Just in time for the industry’s budget-planning season, Douglas West (King’s College London), John B. Ford (Old Dominion University), Paul W. Farris (University of Virginia) outline a model for managers. “The budgeting process is not as rational as economists and management scientists would prefer and rarely can be demonstrated to produce profit-optimizing budgets,” the authors assert. ”Recognizing the role that heuristics play … is the first step toward a much-needed process improvement.”

Standing Out from the Crowd: The Caucus Methodology for Eliciting Brand Associations across Competitors
A unique methodology distinguishes brands across competitors. “Effective brand positioning requires understanding the meaning of each brand within the competitive set,” Miami University’s Michael McCarthy and Gillian Oakenfull, write. “This understanding implies the need for research methods that can identify the brand associations representing the ‘points-of-parity’ and ‘points-of-difference’ among and between the competitive brands in a category. The Caucus methodology accomplishes this objective by leveraging a social-gathering metaphor to drive grouping of brands.”

All You Need Is Love? Communication Insights from Pop Music’s Number‑One Hits
David H. Henard and Christian L. Rossetti of North Carolina State University explore pop music themes over a 50-year period (1960–2009). The goal: to help advertisers “join” consumer conversations. Using a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches, the authors uncover communication themes from nearly 1,000 songs that best resonate with mass audiences. The results “provide advertising professionals with a repertoire of themes for consideration in advertising and other marketing communications for mass audiences,” Henard and Rossetti write.

Brand-Placement Effectiveness and Competitive Interference in Entertainment Media: Brand Recall and Choice In Kids’ Video-Game Advertisements
To avoid the high levels of competitive interference across media, many companies have shifted their budgets from advertising to brand placement—the purposeful incorporation of branded messages into various kinds of programming. Haiming Hang (University of Bath) focuses on “subtle placement” in ads embedded in children’s video games as he explores whether the presence of a competing brand placement can influence focal-brand placement effectiveness: “in particular whether it can influence the cognitive result (brand recall) and conative result (brand choice) differently.” Asserts Hang: “This consideration has important implications for advertisers, as it can inform them whether they need to avoid competitive interference.”

What We Know about Peer-To-Peer Marketing

Consumer Moments of Truth in the Digital Context: How “Search” And “E-Word of Mouth” Can Fuel Consumer Decision Making
Gillian Moran, Laurent Muzellec,  (University College Dublin/Michael Smurfit Graduate Business School), Eoghan Nolan (Wonga.com/formerly Google) establish the cycle of e-WOM influence and explain how marketers can successfully manage MOTs. As digital technology has empowered shoppers with more information (delivered more often), the authors argue that this critical juncture in the path to purchase has become both richer and more complicated. “Digital consumers’ purchasing behaviors have outgrown traditional purchase decision-making models,” the authors write.

How Contagious Is Your Viral Marketing Campaign?
A Mathematical Model for Assessing Campaign Performance

Few marketing campaigns are purely viral, assert Michael T. Ewing, David B. Stewart, Dineli R. Mather, and Joshua D. Newton (Deakin University, Australia/ Marketing Decision Analysis Pty Ltd.). In this study, the authors unveil new metrics for evaluating the effectiveness of both viral and non-viral components of peer-to-peer campaigns.  “In determining what contributed to the success of a marketing campaign,” the writers advise, “managers are cautioned not to overstate the contribution made by the viral components. Rather, they should examine the relative contribution that viral and non-viral processes make to the overall performance of their campaigns.”

What Makes People “Like” Comedic-Violence Advertisements?
A Model for Predicting Attitude and Sharing Intention

Yeuseung Kim (DePaul University), Hye Jin Yoon (Southern Methodist University) offer a model for predicting attitude and sharing intention for comedic-violence advertisements, shedding light on the characteristics of people who likely will enjoy and share them. There is a  “threshold where comedic violence has a positive effect depending on the characteristics of the individuals receiving the advertisements and the message perceptions that the advertisements generate,” Kim and Yoon caution marketers. To keep that threshold in practical reach, they suggest heavier doses of the comedic and lighter touches of the violent.

When Do Advertising Parodies Hurt?
The Power of Humor and Credibility in Viral Spoof Advertisements

Ouidade Sabri (Université Paris-Est, UPEC, IRG) and Géraldine Michel (Sorbonne Graduate Business School) study the effects of negative advertising parodies created by amateurs and spread through social media, finding both humor and credibility a potent mix for changing consumer behaviors toward a brand. “Communication effects of
parody appeals completely are mediated by attitude toward the parody, which, in turn, mainly depends on parody humor perceptions and claim credibility,” they write. “Parodists, thus, must carefully consider the design of their parody if they hope to deliver important messages to target audiences.” For product and service managers, “A credible parody with humor may harm the brand attitudes of both more and less committed consumers. Therefore, brand managers and organizations should acknowledge the seriously damaging potential of parodies.”

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